The annual European Capital of Culture Award has done wonders for tourism in cities across Europe including Istanbul which received the award last year. This year’s winner, Tallinn, is particularly special, as Estonia celebrates its 20th anniversary of Soviet independence. To celebrate both the award and the country’s independence Tallinn will be hosting daily art, music, literal and cultural exhibitions throughout the year.
During the year an impressive 251 different events are planned, with one large festival each month, including the Jazzkaar jazz festival in April, Tallinn Old Town Days in June, the Youth Song and Dance Celebration and Tallinn Maritime Days in July, the Birgitta Festival for opera in August and the Black Nights Film Festival in November. This, the largest cultural event in the history of Estonia, will attract some of the world’s biggest names in art, literature, music, film and culture.
Tallinn has chosen for its Capital of Culture theme `Stories of the Seashore’, to tell the story of Tallinn and Estonia’s spiritual and cultural associations with the seashore, as the city continues to re-open the city to the sea. As part of the seashore development the new Estonia Maritime Museum will open in July in the re-developed vast concrete sea-plane hangars, located on the coast to the west of Tallinn centre. The route to the museum will be along a specially marked walkway, enabling visitors to walk the one kilometre route from the city to the Museum.
A full programme of events has been scheduled and information about the daily events in the city can be found at www.tallinn2011.ee with a `What? When? Where?’ event planner and search engine to help visitors plan the date and itinerary of their visit to Tallinn.
On 4th November Russophiles can enjoy a lecture screening of epic film, Sibiriade, in four parts as part of the Nikolai Dvigubsky Series at Pushkin House. Hidden deep in Siberia is a village of Yelan. Two families live here from the time immemorial: the Solomins – wealthy, well-established people; and the Ustyuzhanins – rebels, poets, jovial persons, though as hard-working as the former. In 1917, a revolution took place in Russia, which had radically changed the lives of many Russians, including those living in Yelan. But the well-to-do Solomins would not recognise the Soviet regime. Years will pass before the young generation of Solomins’ and Ustyuzhanins’ children and grand-children put an end to the senseless hostility and build a new life on Siberia’s rich and fertile land.
6.30pm, Thursday 4 November 2010
Lecture-Screening “Sibiriade”, Nikolai Dvigubsky Series
1978 | USSR, Mosfilm | colour | 100 mins + 99 mins
In Russian with English subtitles
Tickets: £7.00, concessions £5.00, FREE for Friends of Pushkin House
Google has announced a new set of historical aerial images, taken over European cities during World War II, which have been made available via Google Earth. They can now be compared directly to images from the present day. Images taken in 1943, show the effect of wartime bombing on more than 35 European towns and cities. Imagery for Warsaw, which was heavily destroyed at the time, is available from both years 1935 and 1945.
The Historical Imagery feature gives people a unique perspective on the events of the past using today’s mapping technology. It is hoped that this World War II imagery will enable all of us to understand our shared history in a new way and to learn more about the impact of the war on the development of our cities.
Imagery from 1935 and 1945 for Warsaw in Poland is particularly compelling. The city was amongst those most badly damaged in the war and comparisons with today are striking. Contrast can be seen for example by comparing the imagery of the Historic Centre of Warsaw, a UNESCO World Heritage site, described as an ‘outstanding example of a near-total reconstruction of a span of history covering the 13th to the 20th century’. The Royal Castle of Warsaw for example was completely burned to the ground and subsequently reconstructed, between 1971-1988. Dramatic too is the imagery of the location of the Warsaw Ghetto, supposedly the largest ghetto in Europe between 1940 and 1943.
It’s very humbling to realise how you could so easily have never been born, how random it is that you were born. I am half Slovak and half English, born in Canada in 1963 at a time when Slovaks remained behind the Iron Curtain. Consequently, it is a miracle that my father, Jan Sisolak, while not a notable war hero but indeed a villager who like many others made a contribution to Slovak history, survived a period of repression and terror.
My grandmother, Jan’s mother, was Helena Sisolakova nee Winko, who married Imrich Sisolak of Zavod in Slovakia around 1920. Helena was one of about 9 children. At the turn of the 20th Century her parents decided to emigrate to America. They agreed to leave behind their youngest child Helena for the grandparents to raise and care for (a very common practise among emigrating families throughout Europe).
Helena lived in the village of Zavod where nearly everyone, or so it seems, is named Sisolak. Helena’s eldest brother was one Vendolin Winko and they were able to maintain a close relationship by post. This was no mean feat considering the events of history during their lifetimes. After all, around the time of their weddings the First World War Versailles treaty of 1918 was signed; the regions of Slovakia and the Czech Republic were united as Czechoslovakia; while the population of villages throughout Slovakia were devastated by the effects of World War I and the flu pandemic of 1919.
Helena married Imrich Sisolak, a local business man and in 1924 she gave birth to Jan. He lived in the village with many cousins and other relatives. Jan was encouraged by his father to take exams in business. When Jan was 14 in 1938 Slovakia declared its autonomy within the federal state. On the 15th March 1939 Hitler invaded a non-German country for the first time and Britain realised that his desire was not for unity of the German people but instead for world domination. During this time the Hlinka Guard, a militia force maintained by the Slovak People’s Party until 1945 and named after Andrej Hlinka, drew recruits from all walks of life.
In 1939, neighbouring country Poland was invaded by Germany. By 1942 Jews in Slovakia were taken by train to Auschwitz, the organisation of which fell to the Hlinka Guard. In many respects the situation in Slovakia during World War II was much the same of Vichy France; while the government collaborated with the Nazis the will of the general populace was vastly opposed to Nazism.
In 1944 Jan and his brother, Martin, answered the call to arms of the Slovak resistance known as the Slovak National Uprising. It amazes me that in present time of email and internet how a country in the midst of war could organise and galvanise such patriotism, action and courage. Nevertheless, the resistance movement was successfully orchestrated from Banská Bystrica to oust the government.
Unfortunately, Martin was killed in 1944 in a village called Trubin alongside five other men all aged just 19 years. To this day his grave and indeed the village cemetery is tended to by villagers and who on All Souls’ Day adorn the graves with flowers and candles.
The exact history of Jan’s service is unknown but it is known he spent much of his time in the forests. He regularly recalled eating lamb, cooked quickly on a fire at the bottom of the forest so that the enemy did not notice the fire. This was particularly unusual as lamb was and is not a meat traditionally eaten by Slovaks. Nevertheless, despite the awful texture of the meat, it provided vital sustenance for the resistance movement.
Unfortunately, despite the valiant efforts of the resistance movement, Germans were victorious; although the Partisans remained active until the Soviets liberated Slovakia in 1945. Post war Slovakia was grim under Russian occupation. Those who had acted as Partisans were at continual risk of enduring lengthy prison sentences, torture and worse. The Communist and pro-Russian government wanted to quash Slovak spirit and those who had or continued to collaborate with capitalists.
Dark Blue World, a Czech film starring Tara Fitzgerald and Charles Dance does a good job of illustrating this era. The film portrays two pilots who escape Czechoslovakia in 1939 and retrain in England to fight during World War II.
It was in this same era that Jan could no longer cope with the economic, political or social situation in Slovakia. In August 1951, aged 26, he slipped a note under his nephew’s pram cushion stating that he had to leave. Jan left with a friend in the dead of night with their clothes wrapped around a tyre. They crossed the Morava River at a narrow but well policed point into Austria successfully evading Russian Soldiers patrolling the border. From there they made their way to Salzberg to the Refugee Council.
The friends had a choice between Canada and England. It was due to the assisted passage programme, operating between England, America and Canada, that Jan met his English wife (my mother) and they married in 1962. Although his mother- and father-in-law never met Jan they took a coach trip in the 1960s to Czechoslovakia and insisted the guide take them to Zavod to meet Jan’s family. It is important to bear in mind that during this decade, the Soviet Union were willing to use severe coercion to maintain control of the area and thus on 20 August 1968 Czechoslovakia was invaded and its so-called Prague Spring of liberalisation was crushed. Despite this and somewhat remarkably, the guide was persuaded and at great personal risk, the English couple met Jan’s family. During the trip they learned that Imrich, Jan’s father, was regularly imprisioned for his Catholic tendencies.
Jan and his wife separated in 1970 and I came to live in England. Finally, in 1991, Jan and I were reunited in Canada shortly before he died. I learned that during his lifetime he never wore the colour red as a personal stand against Communism.
The federation dissolved peacefully in 1993 in a so-called velvet divorce. By 2001 I desired to meet my family and flew to Prague and took a train to Bratislava. I was almost too scared to get off and when I met the family at the station I looked into their eyes, finally reinforcing my inkling that I truly belonged as part of their family and as part of Slovakian history.
Thanks to the merit of the internet, just last year, Vendelin Winkos’ great grandson, who lives in the United States of America, tracked me down and sent me a photograph of Helena and Imrich Sisolakovci on their wedding day.
When in 2004 Slovakia joined the EU and NATO non-residents were finally allowed to legally own land and property in villages. I now own cottages built in 1875 which I run as a holiday business encouraging tourists from all over the world to discover this gem of a country. With a population of only five million people and an incredible 40% of land covered in forest, the country is beautiful with a rich culture and history.
For just 1000 Forints, one can enter the Status Park just outside Budapest in Hungary, a bizarre collection of Soviet status from the Communist regime not just throughout Hungary, but also other former satellite states.
While there are a great number of statues continuing to be restored and the park itself remains unfinished, it is definitely worth a visit if one is staying in Budapest for a few days.
Ordinarily such striking communist symbols would have ended up on a scrap heap, but instead Hungary made the decision to collect the historic and cultural items missing from most other former Communist countries, and used them to create the Statue Park, now home to more than 40 busts, statues and plaques of Lenin, Marx, Belun Kun and ‘heroic’ members of the proletariat.
The sheer scale of the individual monuments is incredible, particularly when one considers some were built as recently at the 1980s.
In order to visit the Statue Park, take tram 19 from 1 Batthyany ter in Buda or tram 49 from V Deak Ferenc ter in Pest or red-numbered bus 7 from V Ferenciek tere in Pest to the terminus at XI Etele ter. From the square, catch a yellow Volan bus from stand 7 to Diosd-Erd and get off at the fifth stop.